Created for the preparation for copper for use with EPi's electroplating processes. Does not produce undesirable fumes, so no venting is required when using at room temperature. Produces a defined etch profile and consistent surface area. Does not contain phosphate, chromate, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, or ammonia. Concentration: 8–24 oz/gal. (Optimum 16 oz). Temperature: 65–90° F. Time: 2–10 minutes immersion.